The name Al-aqsa and Haram-el-Sharif has been used to describe the entire compound including the mosque, along with the Dome of the Rock, the Gates of the Temple Mount, and the four minarets.
The mosque is located on the Temple Mount, referred to by Muslims today as the "Haram al-Sharif" ("Noble Sanctuary"), an enclosure expanded by King Herod the Great beginning in 20 BCE. The original sanctuary is believed to date to the time of Abraham in Islam.
The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism, the place where God's divine presence is manifested more than in any other place, and is the place Jews turn towards during prayer. It was from here the world expanded into its present form and where God gathered the dust used to create the first human.
The only mosque mentioned by name in the Quran apart from the Ka’bah. Muslims first prayed in the direction of Al-aqsa (the farthest mosque). This is also the place where Muhammad prayed with all other prophets and started his celestial journey. Some Islamic traditions recognize this as the place where the day of judgement will begin.
Dome of the Rock
According to Talmud it was from this rock that earth was created, from where Adam, Abel and Cain and later Noah offered sacrifices to God and where Abraham fulfilled God's test to see if he would be willing to sacrifice his son.
This is another possible location of the foundation stone that was located beneath the Ark of the Covenant; also a possible location for the stone beneath the alter in the Temple of Solomon.
This rock is also believed to be the place from where the Prophet Muhammed ascended to heaven during his celestial night journey. Also, it is possibly the location from where the angel Israfeel will blow the trumpet to herald the Day of Judgement.